WKIP 2017 Projects
Waiawa, ʻEwa, Oʻahu
Ashlee Laʻakea ʻAi
Kuhiawaho: Reclaiming Hawaiian History and Kanaka Identity Through Loʻi Restoration
Piecing Together the Past: The History of Kahikuonālani Church, 1834 – 1880
The removal of Mrs. Bishop to ʻEwa was a crucial decision made by the Bishops. It was a decision that would forever cement them in the history of the Kahikuonalani Church. Mrs Delia Bishop, the second wife of Artemas Bishop, had fallen ill due to the overbearing stresses of being a missionary school teacher and the extreme heat of 1830s Kailua, Hawaiʻi island. Their decision to move to Ewa was largely due to its lush green environment and cool breezes. Because Mrs. Bishop was recovering from her illness, it allowed them to stay in Ewa; and Artemas Bishop was able to establish his mission of twenty years of preaching the protestant religion to the kanaka of Ewa. Artemas Bishop played an important part in converting the kanaka maoli of the Ewa district over to the protestant religion.There are other parts of the churchʻs history that also align with this argument. Therefore the focus of this research is: How has the transitioning of the luakini heiau on Haupuʻu into a church aided in the conversion of Kanaka Maoli to western religions from the years 1834-1884.
Moʻolelo Moʻo o Waiawa: Moʻo Traditions of Waiawa
This paper examines moʻolelo, historical accounts or traditions, concerning moʻo in the ahupuaʻa of Waiawa to gain a better understanding of Akua Moʻo, spiritual beings or deities that can resemble a lizard, and moʻolelo moʻo, traditions relating specifically to moʻo, and how these traditions may be tied to ʻāina and what their place may be within Kānaka communities. A review of moʻolelo moʻo in Waiawa will reveal the level of importance placed upon moʻo within a kānaka world view.
Various moʻolelo moʻo throughout Hawai’i present mo’o as sometimes malicious or mischievous beings, such as Kalamainu’u, a mo’o wahine that abducted an ali’i and initiated a war between the mo’o and Pele clans (Brown 2010, 9). Or Panaewa, the Akua Mo’o that tried to kill Hi’iaka during her journey to retrieve Lohiau (Hoʻoulumāhiehie and Puakea Nogelmeier (2006, 51-58). However in this paper, I argue that the role of mo’o, as seen through these mo’olelo, works as a reminder of who we are and where we have been. The beliefs and values that Kānaka hold important are emphasized through the re-telling of these traditions.
Waiawa Food Systems
In this paper looking into Waiawa Food Systems, I explore the question of how the natural environment could inspire Kanaka Maoli (Native Hawaiians), who were so deeply rooted in their world, to create sustainable agriculture systems individually tailored to a specific location among Hawai‘i’s many microclimates. Historically, Waiawa and the greater region around Pu‘uloa (Pearl Harbor) was an important agricultural area for Kanaka Maoli. The place was natural rich in freshwater that the Kanaka Maoli utilized for their agricultural and aquacultural systems.
Utilizing Māhele documents from the mid 19th century such as Land Commission Award (LCA) testimonies and Royal Patents, as well as a Hawaii Territory survey map from the time period, we can get an idea of the agricultural systems that were in use specifically in Kuhialoko, a ʻili ʻāina (land unit) within the boundaries of Waiawa. Understanding the array of agricultural methods that were used in Kuhialoko, I aim to show how Kanaka Maoli in Waiawa developed a place-based sustainable agricultural model. Knowing this history allows us to revitalize and restore place-based agricultural practices such as those found in Waiawa as we work towards a sustainable, food secure Hawaiʻi.
Collin Kamakānepihakealoha Kaʻaikaula
He Moʻolelo Kaʻao no Kaʻehuikimanōopuʻuloa: Diving Into Ancestral Stories
Kanaka Maoli (Native Hawaiians) revere the manō (shark) in the same respect as their chiefs. For example, the ʻōlelo noʻeau (Hawaiian proverb) provided at the beginning of this paper compares the ferocity of aliʻi (chiefs) to the manō. Mary Kawena Pukuʻi further interprets the ʻōlelo noʻeau to mean that “...like a shark, a chief is not to be tampered with” (Pūkuʻi 1983, 87). In a society in which chiefs were seen as directly descended from the gods, Kanaka Maoli understood and honored manō in the very
same respect: as descendents of these gods and in some cases, gods themselves. As Pukuʻi puts it, the shark is the chief of the ocean, in the same way that an aliʻi is on land.
Beyond this ʻōlelo noʻeau, there are numerous moʻolelo or stories that our Hawaiian ancestors have left for us that can be used to demonstrate how Kanaka Maoli viewed and connected to the manō. One such moʻolelo is that of Kaʻehuikimanōopuʻuloa. Kaʻehuikimanōopuʻuloa or Kaʻehuiki for short, is a manō aliʻi
(shark chief) who traveled across the pae ʻāina Hawaiʻi (the Hawaiian islands) all the way to the mythical and godly realm of Kahiki. Although He Moʻolelo kaʻao no Kaʻehuikimanōopuʻuloa traces Kaʻehuiki’s entire journey from Hawaiʻi to Kahiki and back, this paper specifically looks at Kaeʻhuiki’s time spent in Puʻuloa (Pearl Harbor) in order to learn more about this area and the manō who lived there.
David Kaleikanemoʻopuna Perreira
Hanakēhau: Restoration of History and Water in an ʻIli ʻĀina
Wai`awa is a waiwai ahupua`a in the moku of `Ewa. What makes Wai`awa unique is the amount of accessible groundwater available. The goal of this paper is to shed light as to why Wai`awa is so waiwai with pūnāwai and streamflow. Also, I’ve included a brief history of Wai`awa, and specifically Hanakēhau (as a case study,) to see how changes in land use dictated the changes in water use. I have also identified a few relevant threats to the water systems, and explain how Hanakēhau Learning Farm is using the knowledge of our kūpuna in restoration of the area to create a cultural gathering place. Despite urban and industrial development around Wai`awa kai and Hanakēhau, the water systems still remain viable for use in various forms of agriculture and cultural learning.